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Bentuk- Bentuk Tenses

Written By MRizal Wrc on Rabu, 26 September 2012 | 9/26/2012


T E N S E S
I. PRESENT
   1. Simple Present Tense
    POLA:
Subject + Verb 1 + ….
They /   We
I   /   You

Subject + Verb s-es + ….    
He  /   She
 It
           
     FUNGSI:       
     a. Untuk menyatakan suatu kebiasaan (habitual action) atau kegiatan yang terjadi berulang – ulang dan terus menerus.
   Contoh :
* The students go to school everyday.
* She studies English twice a week.
* I go to church on Sundays
* We celebrate our independence day once in a year.
     b. Untuk menyatakan kebenaran umum (general truth).
         Contoh:
* The sun rises in the east and sets down in the west.
* The earth revolves round the sun.
* The pineapple never grows up on a tree.
      c. Digunakan dalam bahasa drama, komentar radio dan sejenisnya.
When the curtain rises, Juliet is writing on her desk. Suddenly the window opens and a masked man enters.
Contoh
(+) You have a book
(-) You DON’T have a book
(?) DO you have a book?

(+) He has a book
(-) He DOESN’T have a book
(?) DOES he have a book?


      KETERANGAN WAKTU:
  1. Every morning/day/week/month/year
  2. Once, twice, three times, four times, …
  3. Adverb of frequency : always, usually, sometimes, often, never, seldom.


    2. Present Continuous Tense
      POLA :
Subyek + to be (is, am, are) + V-ing
Positif (+):
subject + to be (am, is, are) + Verb – ing + object
Negatif (-) :
subject + to be + not + verb – ing + object
Tanya (?) :
to be + subject + verb – ing + object
      FUNGSI;
  1. Untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu diucapkan.
Contoh:
* They are still playing at the moment.
* She is reading a novel now.
  1. Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung tetapi belum tentu sedang berlangsung ketika pernyataan diucapkan.
Contoh:
*       I am learning French this year.
*       Mr. Brown is teaching English.
      KETERANGAN WAKTU:    Now, at the moment, this afternoon, this evening, right now, today.
      Note : Ketika ada kata kerja seperti: Look!, Listen!, Watch!, Notice! ( Imperative), maka tenses
                nya Present Continuous.
      Contoh:     *  Look! The man is climbing.
                 *  Listen! The girls next door are singing my favourite song.


3. Present Perfect Tense
    POLA:
Subject + Have  +  Verb 3 + ….
                 Has

    FUNGSI :
    a. Untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang terjadi pada waktu lampau dan waktunya tidak tertentu.
     Contoh :
*       William Shakespeare has written many short stories.
*       I have swept the floor. It looks clean now.

  1. Untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang pernah dilakukan dan mungkin dilakukan lagi di waktu yang akan datang.
Contoh:
*       My friends and I have gone to Bali.
*       Shinta has visited her grand parents many times.

      KETERANGAN WAKTU: Since, for, just (baru saja), already, yet, so far.


4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
    POLA :
Subject + Have  + Been + Verb-ing
                 Has

    FUNGSI :
Untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang mulai dilakukan pada waktu lampau dan sampai sekarang masih berlangsung.
Contoh:
*       My sister has been studying English for three months.
*       The students have been doing the test since 11 o’clock.

     KETERANGAN WAKTU: For, since.



5. Simple Past Tense
        POLA:
Subject + Verb 2 + Object + ….
Positif (+)
- Subject + to be (was/were) + complement
- Subject + verb 2 + object
Negatif (-)
- Subject + to be (was/were) + not + complement
- Subject + did not + verb 1 + object
Tanya (?)
- Did + subject + verb 1 + object ?
       FUNGSI:
Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau.
Contoh:
*       I met my music teacher yesterday.
*       My mother bought a new carpet last Sunday.
*       Rendy closed the window five minutes ago.
*       The students presented their project work this morning.

       KETERANGAN WAKTU:
-          Last ….                         -       …ago                                -       This afternoon
-          Just now            -       This morning                     -       Yesterday


6. Past Continuous Tense
         POLA:
Subject + was  + Verb- ing
                were
Rumus
Positif (+)
Subject + to be (was/were) + verb-ing + object
Negatif (-)
Subject + was/were + not + verb-ing + object
Tanya (?)
- was/were + subject + verb-ing + object ?
         FUNGSI:
  1. Untuk menggambarkan peristiwa yang sedang terjadi pada masa lampau.
 Contoh:
*       I was studying at my friend’s house.
*       My parents were chatting in the living room.
  1. Untuk menggambarkan suatu peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu lampau, dimana peristiwa lain juga terjadi .
Contoh:
*       When I was studying, someone knocked the door.
*       When I was walking to school, I met Dian sastro.

7.  Past Perfect tense
   POLA:
Subject + Had + Verb 3

     FUNGSI:
Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang terjadi sebelum kegiatan lain di waktu lampau muncul.
Contoh:  
*       The teachers went home after they had finished teaching.
*       When I arrived Kridosono, my favourite artist had performed.

    KETERANGAN WAKTU: when, after, before.
8. Future Tense
       POLA:
Subject + shall  + Verb 1 + …
                will
Rumus
Positif (+)
Subject + will/shall + verb I + object
Subject + am/is/are + going to + verb I + object
Negatif (-)
Subject + will/shall +NOT + verb I + object
Subject + am/is/are + not + going to + verb I + object
Tanya (?)
Will/shall + subject + verb I + object
Am/is/are + subject + going to + verb I + object
       FUNGSI:
  1. Untuk menggambarkan suatu peristiwa yang akan terjadi.
Contoh:
*       Bobby will come here tomorrow.
*       I shall call my parents when I get home.

  1. Untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang terjadi di masa mendatang yangbukan merupakan keinginan atau kehendak.
Contoh:
*       Tomy will be fourteen years old next year.
*       We shall die one day.

      KETERANGAN WAKTU: Tomorrow, next week/month/year, the day after tomorrow.  

 RUMUS FUTURE CONTINOUS TENSE 
Positif (+)
Subject + will/shall + be + verb-ing + object
Negatif (-)
Subject + will/shall + not + verb-ing + object
Tanya (?)
Will/shall + subject + be + verb-ing + object



 SEMOGA INFORMASI YANG SAYA BERIKAN BERGUNA ! . 




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